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We created the following exposure groups based on prior studies that have conceptually and empirically examined physical and sexual violence within a single category , we asked about 1) whether subjects had ever been bullied between ages 13 and 19 (1 question); and 2) whether subjects experienced other types of abuse before age 18, including being punched, kicked, choked, or receiving a more serious physical punishment from a parent or other adult guardian (1 question) and being touched in a sexual place or being forced to touch another person when they did not want to (1 question). Chi-square tests were used to compare health indicators for subjects who reported any dating violence victimization with those who reported no victimization.
Generalized linear models with a log link and robust sandwich variance estimators were used to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) for each dichotomous health indicator for exposed compared to unexposed subjects, using a modified Possion regression approach .
We used memory prompts, such as asking the subject to remember the year they were in high school, to facilitate recall of the age that a relationship began and ended.
For operational practicality, we asked details about subjects’ three most recent partners [After information about subjects’ relationship history was gathered, dating violence victimization was assessed retrospectively using eight questions covering the three core conceptual areas of intimate (including dating) violence (physical, sexual, and non-physical) outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , and Coker’s dating violence survey currently being administered in a CDC-funded intervention study (unpublished data, personal communication with Dr. Additionally, our questions included newer forms of dating violence/abuse, including harassment/stalking through text messaging and email.
Subjects completed a one-time only online survey to assess current health and retrospective dating violence histories from age 13 to 19 (described below).
The recruitment procedures were as follows: To reduce response bias, subjects were first asked about health before they were asked about dating violence victimization.
The multivariable models were adjusted for age and other non-dating abuse victimization (bullying; punched, kicked, choked by a parent/guardian; touched in a sexual place, forced to touch someone sexually).